Grand Challenge 1
Develop a comprehensive model of physical processes and their interactions with marine food webs
List of relevant papers:
Dalpadado P, Ingvaldsen RB, Stige LC, Bogstad B, Knutsen T, Ottersen G, Ellertsen B. 2012. Climate effects on Barents Sea ecosystem dynamics. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 69:1303–1316. Relevance: Climate affects marine ecosystems through a multitude of pathways. This paper reports on how climate influences the Barents Sea ecosystem, with a focus on the lower trophic levels.
Hidalgo M, Gusdal Y, Dingsør G, Hjermann D, Ottersen G, Stige LC, Melsom A, Stenseth NC. 2012. A combination of hydrodynamical and statistical modelling reveals nonstationary climate effects on fish larvae distributions. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. 279:275–283. Relevance: Our new methodological approach to study climate effects on fish larvae distributions combines numerical and statistical modelling to draw robust inferences from observed distributions and will be of general interest for studies of many marine fish species.
Persson J, Stige LC, Stenseth NC, Usov N, Martynova D. 2012. Scale-dependent effects of climate on two copepod species, Calanus glacialis and Pseudocalanus minutus, in an Arctic-boreal sea. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 468:71–83. Relevance: Climate variables can have contrasting effects on different life stages of organisms and the effects can vary seasonally. Such complex responses are ecologically important but require highly resolved data to detect.
Sainmont J, Thygesen UH, Visser AW. 2012. Diel vertical migration arising in a habitat selection game. J Theoretical Ecology. doi:10.1007/s12080-012-0714-0 Relevance: A population of identical individuals can exhibit different vertical migration behaviours even when there is no explicit density dependence. This pattern emerges through game theoretic considerations where behavioural cascades impose apparent density dependent effects.
Törnroos A, Bonsdorff E. 2012. Developing the multitrait concept for functional diversity: Lessons from a system rich in functions but poor in species. Ecological Applications. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/11-2042.1 Relevance: Uses empirical trait-based analysis as a tool to reveal differences and similarities between assemblage structure and function. It functions as a useful tool for comparing different environments.
Visser AW, Mariani P, Pigolotti S. 2012. Adaptive behaviour, tri- trophic foodweb stability and damping of chaos. J Royal Soc Interface. 9(71):1373–1380. doi:10.1098/rsif.2011.0686 Relevance: The fitness seeking (adaptive) behaviour of grazers in a marine food-web can have quite a significant effect on the dynamics of the system, and promote stability in an otherwise unstable configuration.
Casini M, Blenckner T, Mollmann C, Gardmark A, Lindegren M, Llope M, Kornilovs G, Plikshs M, Stenseth NC. 2012. Predator transitory spillover induces trophic cascades in ecological sinks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 109:8185–8189. Relevance: The fishing on cod affects also the food-web dynamics of other areas via spillover effects.
Nyström M, Norström AV, Blenckner T, la Torre-Castro M, Eklöf JS, Folke C, Österblom H, Steneck RS, Thyresson M, Troell M. 2012. Confronting Feedbacks of Degraded Marine Ecosystems. Ecosystems. 15:695–710. Relevance: Ecosystem that have experienced a regime shift might not respond linearily to the reduction of for example fishing instead internal feedbacks in the ecosystem needs to be broken so that the ecosystem can change into a new state.
Meier HEM, Andersson HC, Arheimer B, Blenckner T, Chubarenko B, Donnelly C, Eilola K, Gustafsson BG, Hansson A, Havenhand J, Höglund A, Kuznetsov I, MacKenzie BR, Müller-Karulis B, Neumann T, Niiranen S, Piwowarczyk J, Raudsepp U, Reckermann M, Ruoho-Airola T, Savchuk OP, Schenk F, Schimanke S, Väli G, Weslawski JM, Zorita E. 2012. Comparing reconstructed past variations and future projections of the Baltic Sea ecosystem—first results from multi-model ensemble simulations. Environmental Research Letters. 7:034005. Relevance: Ensemble modeling including climate, catchment, bio- geochemical and food-web modeling have been applied to reconstruct the past changes due to eutrophication, climate and fishing and pro- vide outlook for different management options.
Gustafsson B, Schenk F, Blenckner T, Eilola K, Meier HEM, Müller-Karulis B, Neumann T, Ruoho-Airola T, Savchuk O, Zorita E. 2012. Reconstructing the Development of Baltic Sea Eutrophication 1850–2006. AMBIO. 41:534–548. Relevance: Different models have been applied to better understand the processes of past 150 years of change in the Baltic Sea.
Niiranen S, Blenckner T, Hjerne O, and Tomczak M. 2012. Uncertainties in a Baltic Sea Food-Web Model Reveal Challenges for Future Projections. AMBIO. 41:613–625. Relevance: Different parameterizations of a food-web model have been tested with theories and uncertainty in data collections to illustrate the uncertainties in future food-web dynamics.
MacKenzie BR, Meier HEM, Lindegren M, Neuenfeldt S, Eero M, Blenckner T, Tomczak M, Niiranen S. 2012. Impact of Climate Change on Fish Population Dynamics in the Baltic Sea: A Dynamical Downscaling Investigation. AMBIO. 41:626–636. Relevance: Ensemble fish modelling has been used to understand the processes affecting the fish population dynamics.
Lindegren M, Blenckner T, Stenseth NC. 2012. Nutrient reduction and climate change cause a potential shift from pelagic to benthic pathways in a eutrophic marine ecosystem. Global Change Biology. 18:3491–3503. Relevance: The paper shows that due to the reduction in nutrient load from catchments, climate and fishing a regime shift occurs changing the trophic pathways in the ecosystem.
Niiranen S, Yletyinen J, Tomczak MT, Blenckner T, Hjerne O, MacKenzie BR, Müller-Karulis B, Neumann T, Meier HEM. 2013. Combined effects of global climate change and regional ecosystem drivers on an exploited marine food web. Global Change Biology. doi:10.1111/gcb.12309 Relevance: This paper present future scenarios were multiple drivers and an ensemble model approach has been applied to discuss potential future pathways of ecosytem mangement
Tomczak M, Heymans JJ, Yletyinen J, Niiranen S, Blenckner T. 2013. Ecological network indicators of ecosystem status and change in the Baltic Sea. PLoS ONE Relevance: This paper quantifies the changes in trophic flows of a food-web to provide better understanding of non-linear and abrupt shifts in marine ecosystems.
Fiksen Ø, Follows MJ, Aksnes DL. 2013. Trait-based models of nutrient uptake in microbes extend the Michaelis-Menten framework. Reviews in Limnology and Oceanography. 58(1):193–202 Relevance: The uptake of nutrients by microbes is a core process in determining biogeochemical cycles and an important part of ocean ecosystem models. We reviewed the progress in this field and recommend abandoning the traditional ‘half-saturation coefficient’ and instead to use mechanistic models for nutrient uptake. This allows a more realistic formulation of interactions between cell size and environmental factors.
Visser AW, Fiksen Ø. 2013. Optimal foraging in marine ecosystem models: selectivity, profitability and switching. Marine Ecology — Progress Series. 473:91–101. doi:10.3354/meps10079 Relevance: Many ecosystem models parameterize the flow among different groups based on loosely founded ‘preference functions.’ We show that assumptions involving optimal foraging can replace this assumption and provide and evolutionary sound basis for the flux of energy and matter in food-web models.
Vollset KW, Catalan IA, Fiksen Ø, Folkvord A. 2013. The effect of food deprivation on the distribution of larval and early juvenile cod in experimental vertical temperature and light gradients. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 475:191–201. Relevance: The vertical positioning of larval fish has important consequences for death and growth rates. We tested experimentally the ability and tendency of larval fish to choose their habitat from stomach fullness and temperature gradients.
Urtizberea A, Fiksen Ø. 2013. Effects of prey size structure and turbulence on feeding and growth of anchovy larvae. Environmental Biology of Fishes. 96:1045–1063. doi:10.1007/s10641-012-0102-6 Relevance: Larval fish recruitment success is sensitive to environ- mental factors such as prey size-spectra and turbulence. We have developed a model to bridge between field estimates of prey size- spectra, turbulence and feeding success in anchovy larvae.
Castellani M, Rosland R, Urtizberea A, Fiksen Ø. 2013. A mass- balanced pelagic ecosystem model with size-structured adaptive zooplankton and fish. Ecological Modelling. 251:54–63. Relevance: We have developed a mass-balanced ecosystem model with size-structured zooplankton and behaviourally responsive fish and zooplankton. The model represents a realization that behavioural processes must be resolved in ecosystem models of larger organisms such as mesozooplankton and fish, and demonstrates one way to include this in biogeochemical modelling.
Rogers LA, Olsen EM, Knutsen H, Stenseth NC. Habitat effects on population connectivity in a coastal seascape. In Review. Relevance: This study investigates the physical and biological mechanisms underlying patterns of population spatial structure in heavily harvested Skagerrak coastal cod.
Hovland EK, Dierssen HM, Ferreira AS, Johnsen G. 2013. Dynamics regulating major trends in Barents Sea temperatures and the subsequent effect on remotely sensed particulate inorganic carbon. Marine Ecology — Progress Series. 484:17–32. Relevance: A more comprehensive understanding of how ocean temperatures influence coccolithophorid production of particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) will make it easier to constrain the effect of ocean acidification in the future. We studied the effect of temperature on Emiliania huxleyi PIC production in the Barents Sea using ocean colour remote sensing data.
Snickars M, Weigel B, Bonsdorff E. 2015. Impact of eutrophication and climate change on fish and zoobenthos in coastal waters of the Baltic Sea. Mar Biol 162:141–151. DOI 10.1007/s00227-014-2579-3 Relevance: The study shows contrasting responses to climate related factors in two coupled trophic levels. Benthic feeding fish may expand their feeding grounds vertically with warmer water while zoobenthos is adversely affected by changes in salinity.
Törnroos A, Nordström MC, Bonsdorff E. 2013. Coastal habitats as surrogates for taxonomic, functional and trophic structures of benthic faunal communities. PloS One, 8(10), e78910. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078910 Relevance: Coastal habitats are highly diverse and important areas of primary and secondary production as well as nursery habitats for commercial fish species. Managing these areas is thus of high priority, and increasingly done through the use of habitat maps and classification schemes. This paper illustrates the importance of also evaluating the functional and trophic structures of habitats in addition to traditional taxonomic measures when habitats are used as e.g. proxies for a management unit.
Pantel, J.H., D. Pendleton, A. Walters and L.A. Rogers. Linking environmental variability to population and community dynamics. 2014. Pages 119 - 131 in P.F. Kemp, editor. Eco-DAS IX Symposium Proceedings. Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography, Waco, TX. Relevance: We review characteristics of environmental variability, the theory underlying ecological responses, and practical tools for linking environmental variability to population and community dynamics.